Archive for "Magnetrol"

Magnetrol® Instruments With SIL Certification: Protecting Your Plant

Magnetrol Jun 07, 2017 No Comments

Magnetrol SIL Certification

In the process control industries, safety and reliability are paramount. Operators are searching for the peace of mind that comes from high-quality instruments. To minimize risks, the Safety Integrity Levels, or SIL, were developed as an integral part of a comprehensive safety system. SIL certification and SIL ratings guarantee a level of dependability and security that operators can trust. Many Magnetrol® products are SIL-suitable. Below is some more information about the transmitters and switches that are SIL-Suitable or have received SIL certification: SIL-Suitable Switches Echotel® Model 961 Single Point Ultrasonic Level Switches Reliable single point level measurement. Advanced self-testing continuously monitors the electronics, transducer and piezoelectric crystals. An adjustable time delay is provided for reliable measurement in turbulent processes. Rated SIL 2 FMEDA.
Magnetrol SIL certification

Echotel® 961 and 962 ultrasonic level switches

ECHOTEL Model 962 Dual Point Ultrasonic Level Switches Reliable dual point level measurement or pump control. A tip sensitive lower gap allows measurement to within 1⁄4″ of the vessel bottom. The flow-through upper gap allows up to a 125″ (318 cm) separation between switch points. Rated SIL 2 FMEDA. Single-stage External Cage Float Level Switches Field-proven switches. Self-contained units designed for external mounting on the side of a vessel, tank or bridle. Over 30 models of mechanical switches have proven their reliability and repeatability for decades in numerous applications. Rated SIL 2 FMEDA. Single-stage Displacer Level Switches Ideal for sumps, storage and process vessels. Models A10, A15 and External Caged Displacer Switches offer flexibility in application and are not affected by dirty liquids, coating foam, turbulence or agitation. Rated SIL 2 FMEDA. Thermatel® TD Series Flow, Level Interface Switches Reliable operation for flow, level, or interface detection. Offer continuous self-diagnostics. Temperature compensation provides repeatable switch operation with varying process temperature. Gas or liquid flow applications. Rated SIL 1 FMEDA. THERMATEL TG Series Flow, Level Interface Switches Suitable for liquid or gas flow, level, or interface detection. Provide a two-wire intrinsically safe circuit between the probe and remote DIN rail enclosure. 24 VDC input power, relay plus mA signal for flow trending/indication. Rated SIL 1 FMEDA. SIL-Certified Transmitters Eclipse® Model 706 Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter The leader in high-performance guided wave radar. This 24 VDC loop-powered transmitter utilizes a variety of coaxial, twin, and single-rod probes. Performance is not process dependent, and it is capable of measuring low dielectric liquids or solids. Rated SIL 2/3 Certified. ECLIPSE Model 705 Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter Provides measurement performance well beyond that of many traditional technologies. This 24 VDC loop-powered transmitter utilizes coaxial, twin, and single-rod probes. Performance is not process dependent. Rated SIL 2/3 Certified. E3 Modulevel® Displacer Level Transmitter Takes displacer transmitters to the next level. Set up in as few as two steps without level movement. Microprocessor-based, HART, AMS and PACTware™ compatible, E3 offers stable, reliable 4-20 mA output in most applications. Rated SIL 2 FMEDA. SIL-Suitable Transmitters Jupiter® Magnetostrictive Level Transmitter Available in single and dual float models. A loop-powered level transmitter with HART communications, PACTware™ DTM interface, LCD display and push button configuration. It may be externally mounted to a MLI or directly into a vessel. Rated SIL 2 FMEDA. TA2 Thermal Mass Flow Meter Provides reliable flow measurement of air and gases. Delivers excellent low flow sensitivity, high turndown and low pressure drop. Pre-calibrated and configured for the user’s application. Integral or remote electronics. Rated SIL 1 FMEDA. For more information on magnetrol products visit this page for flow and this page for level instrumentation. OIH is the authorised distributor for Magnetrol products in South Africa


Magnetrol May 06, 2016 No Comments

magnetrol Radar Transmitter Pulsar R96

Magnetrol’s newest level control solution radar transmitter delivers best-in-class accuracy and reliability magnetrol radar transmitter pulsar radar transmitter Magnetrol International, a leading level and flow instrumentation manufacturer, has launched the Pulsar® Model R96 non-contacting radar transmitter (NCR) for accurate, reliable level control in process applications. Virtually unaffected by the presence of vapors or air movement within a vessel’s free space, the two-wire, loop-powered, 6 GHz NCR transmitter measures a wide variety of liquid media in process conditions ranging from calm product surfaces and water-based media to turbulent surfaces and aggressive hydrocarbon media. The PULSAR Model R96 offers state-of-the-technology performance, offering: - Best-in-class signal processing for exceptional accuracy and reliability - An extensive measurement range, from 20 meters to 40 meters - Advanced diagnostics with automatic waveform capture - A powerful device type manager (DTM) with industry-leading field configuration and troubleshooting capabilities - SIL 2 Capable levels and a 92.7% SFF - HART® and FOUNDATIONTM Fieldbus digital output This latest NCR unit joins the company’s ground-breaking Eclipse® Model 706 guided wave radar (GWR) transmitter to offer process industries a complete portfolio of advanced radar technologies for level control solutions. For information about the new PULSAR Model R96 NCR transmitter, visit or contact a MAGNETROL representative.

Magnetrol PRESS RELEASE Jupiter® Model JM4: Next-Generation Magnetostrictive Level Transmitter

Magnetrol May 06, 2016 No Comments

Magnetrol level Transmitter Jupiter Model JM4

Effective February 2016 magnetrol level transmitter   Magnetrol® International is proud to announce the release of the Jupiter® Model JM4 magnetostrictive level transmitter. The JM4 is available as a direct insertion option, as well as an external mount on any MAGNETROL magnetic level indicator (MLI) or modular instrumentation bridle. With an improved design, unparalleled performance, and a collection of new and innovative features, the JM4 provides safer, simpler, and smarter measurement in total and interface level applications.   Leading Edge Hardware and Softwaremagnetrol level transmitter The JM4 is engineered to be the smartest, most innovative magnetostrictive transmitter available. To this end, numerous enhancements have been introduced, including greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a full graphic local user interface, HART 7.0 (Foundation fieldbus available), local waveform capture, and a more intuitive device type manager (DTM) allowing for remote configuration, trending, and diagnostics.   Field Rotatable and Removable Transmitter Head The JM4 is the first magnetostrictive transmitter in the industry to offer a field-removable and rotatable head. The removable head allows for simpler transmitter maintenance and troubleshooting without disrupting the process. 310° of head rotation provides users with greater accessibility to operate the JM4’s on-board graphical interface.   Smart Probe To further enhance the removable head, the JUPITER Model JM4 also features Smart Probe technology. When any JM4 transmitter head is attached to a probe, a single push of a button imports factory configuration settings into the head, and in seconds, the transmitter is ready for operation.   Remote Mount Option JUPITER now offers a remote mount option. Available in 3 and 12 ft lengths, the transmitter head is attached to the probe via a flexible cable to allow for easier viewing under various spatial constraints.    

Pulp and Paper Industry Applications for Level Measurement | Magnetrol Blog

Magnetrol Dec 10, 2014 No Comments

← Green Harvest Food DriveLevel Instrumentation for Pulp and Paper Process Applications → Pulp and Paper Industry Applications for Level Measurement Posted on December 2, 2014 by magnetrol Increasing competitive, regulatory, supply chain and customer demands have driven the need for process improvement in the pulp and paper industry. In our three-week blog series, Magnetrol® reviews the critical impact that level control makes in improving process efficiencies and safety for pulp and paper mills. This week, turpentine and liquor recovery processes are explored. Next week, we cover plant-wide operations including MC pump standpipes, water storage, chemicals and additives, and lubrication and hydraulic oils. You can also read our first blog article about the pulp and paper industry, which features level measurement applications from chipping to papermaking processes. TURPENTINE RECOVERY Application: Vapors from the digester contain turpentine and 85% of it is released during the relief cycle. Recovery of this volatile organic compound (VOC) is undertaken for environmental reasons, to lessen effluent treatment of condensate, to utilize turpentine as a fuel source, or to sell it as a by-product to chemical processors. Challenges: Two vessels in a typical recovery system require level control of the turpentine/water interface: the decanter, or separator, and the storage tank. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) rates turpentine as a “severe fire hazard.” For this reason, the decanter is contained in a dyked area, storage tanks are sometimes located below ground, and controls must be rated explosion-proof. Level Technologies: - Echotel® Ultrasonic Switch or Thermatel® Thermal Dispersion Switch for point level – Eclipse® Guided Wave Radar Transmitter or Pulsar® Non-Contact Radar for continuous level – Atlas® Magnetic Level Indicator for visual indication BLACK, GREEN AND WHITE LIQUOR RECOVERY Application: Black liquor is the digester waste mixture of spent chemicals and lignin extracted from wood chips. When burned in a recovery boiler, black liquor produces heat for steam and also releases digester chemicals called “smelt.” Mixed with water, smelt becomes green liquor. This is treated with lime in the causticizers to produce white liquor, the digester’s cooking chemical. Challenges: Stored in varying concentrations, liquors are corrosive solutions with high levels of organic compounds. Liquors can cause chemical burns or damage the lungs if inhaled. Level sensors contend with the chemicals’ harshness, variable density and dielectric, agitation, foaming, and media stickiness. Tank controls should activate the appropriate alarms or emergency shutdown systems. Level Technologies: - THERMATEL Thermal Dispersion Switch for point level – ECLIPSE Guided Wave Radar Transmitter (with single rod probe) or PULSAR Non-Contact Radar for continuous level via Pulp and Paper Industry Applications for Level Measurement | Magnetrol Blog.

Improving Solar Power Efficiency Through Level and Flow Control | Magnetrol Blog

Magnetrol Nov 05, 2014 No Comments

Improving Solar Power Efficiency Through Level and Flow Control SEPTEMBER 2, 2014 / MAGNETROL Solar technologies use the sun’s energy to provide electricity, hot water, process heat and cooling. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, solar power presently provides less than 1% of U.S. energy needs, but this is expected to increase with the development of more efficient solar technologies. One way to enhance solar power efficiency is through the use of level and flow instrumentation to drive process improvement. TYPES OF SOLAR COLLECTORS Different solar collectors meet different energy needs. Passive solar designs capture the sun’s heat to provide space heating and light. Photovoltaic cells convert sunlight directly to electricity. Concentrating solar power systems focus sunlight with mirrors to create a high-intensity heat source, which then produces steam or mechanical power to run a generator that creates electricity. Flat-plate collectors absorb the sun’s heat directly into water or other fluids to provide hot water or space heating. SOLAR LEVEL AND FLOW APPLICATIONS Heat Transfer Fluid Storage: Large-scale solar collectors for electric power generation require a heat transfer fluid (water, thermal oils, or ionic liquids) to absorb the sun’s heat for generating steam. Arrays of mirrored panels convert the sun’s energy into +750° F (+399° C) thermal energy that’s hot enough to create steam for turbines. The mirrors focus sunlight onto pipes of heat transfer fluid that run along the mirror’s centerline. The fluid then boils water to produce steam. Thermal fluids also help provide hot water and heat. Thermal fluids are typically stored in pressurized tanks that require level monitoring. Recommended Continuous Level Technologies: Displacer Controller, Guided Wave Radar Recommended Point Level Technologies: External Cage Float Hot Water Storage: High-temperature solar water heaters provide energy-efficient hot water and heat for large industrial facilities. Thermal storage in buffer tanks provides interfaces between collector subsystems and energy-using systems. The preferred solar storage vessel is a vertical cylindrical tank designed for the maximum pressure of the supply water source, which may be as high as 150 psi. Recommended Continuous Level Technologies: Displacer Controller, Guided Wave Radar Recommended Point Level Technologies: External Cage Float Pump Protection: Flow switches protect pumps from damage due to leaks or if a valve is accidentally closed downstream. A flow switch will actuate an alarm and shut down the pump when flow drops below the minimum rate. Flow Alarm: Thermal Dispersion Flow Switch for High/Low Alarm, or Flow Switch

LEVEL AND FLOW INSTRUMENTATION FOR SOLAR POWER EFFICIENCY Share this: via Improving Solar Power Efficiency Through Level and Flow Control | Magnetrol Blog.

Direct Measurement of Mass Flow Rate in Industrial Process Operations

Magnetrol Jul 30, 2014 No Comments
Increasingly, industrial process operators are recognizing the advantages of the direct measurement of mass flow rate for monitoring gases. The following article discusses the difference between volumetric flow and mass flow measurement for gas control applications, and is excerpted from the Magnetrol® Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Measurement Handbook. An Introduction to and Benefits of Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Measurement Accurate mass flow measurement of gas is difficult to obtain. The main reason is that gas is a compressible fluid. This means that the volume of a fixed mass of gas depends upon the pressure and temperature it is subject to Consider a balloon containing one actual cubic foot of gas at room temperature (70° F) and atmospheric pressure. An increase in the room temperature causes the balloon to expand. An increase in the pressure surrounding the balloon results in a decrease in volume. Although the volume of the balloon changes with variations in pressure and temperature, the mass of the gas inside the balloon has remained the same. This illustrates how pressure and temperature affect the actual volume There are many well-established methods of measuring the actual volumetric flow rate. However, the measured flow rate will vary with changes in temperature and pressure. For virtually all industrial process operations, the user wants to measure the mass flow rate instead of the actual flow rate. Chemical reactions work on the basis of mass relationships of ingredients. Combustion is based upon the mass flow rate of the air and the fuel. Gas consumption in a facility is based upon mass flow rate. To accurately measure mass flow, the actual flow rate must be adjusted to correct for any change in temperature and pressure. Thermal mass flow technology is a method of gas flow measurement that does not require correction for changes in process temperature or pressure. Thermal mass flow technology also has a benefit of measurement at low velocities and greater turndown capabilities than those obtainable with other flow measurement devices. Turndown is the flow range for which the device is accurate (maximum flow / minimum flow). What is Mass Flow Rate? Mass Flow is the measurement of the flow rate without consideration of the process conditions. Mass flow is equivalent to the actual flow rate multiplied by the density. M = Q x ρ, where Q is the actual flow and ρ is the density. As the pressure and temperature change, the volume and density change, however the mass remains the same. To obtain standardization of gas flow measurement, Standard conditions of Temperature and Pressure (STP conditions) are utilized. Gas flow measured at STP conditions is corrected from the actual process conditions to standard conditions (more information about standard versus actual process conditions can be found in our Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Measurement Handbook). The simplest way of measuring mass flow of gas is in units of cubic feet per minute or cubic meters per hour, corrected to STP conditions. This is referred to as SCFM (standard cubic feet per minute) or the metric equivalent of Nm3/h (normal cubic meters per hour). The density of a gas at standard conditions is known, thus providing a relationship between SCFM and pounds per hour or between Nm3/h and kg/h. The conversion between the volume at actual conditions and the volume at standard conditions is based on the ideal gas law — actual volume increases in direct proportion to an increase in absolute temperature, and decreases in direct portion to an increase in absolute pressure. Consider the balloon example — as the temperature increases, the volume expands; as the pressure increases, the volume shrinks. Absolute pressure of zero psia (pounds per square inch at absolute conditions) is a perfect vacuum. One atmosphere of pressure is defined as 14.69 psia or zero psig. The conversion between psia and psig is easy: PSIA = PSIG + 14.69. If you have a pressure gauge calibrated for psig, it will read zero at sea level and only measure gauge pressure above atmospheric pressure. The following chart will help clarify this. Absolute zero is defined as the temperature where molecular motion stops. It is defined as 0 K (Kelvin) which is -273.16° C or 0° R (Rankine) which is -459.67° F. To convert between actual temperature and absolute temperature, simply add 460 to the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit or 273 to the temperature in Celsius. Once we establish a set of conditions as a standard temperature and pressure (STP conditions), we can convert between the flow rate at actual conditions and the flow rate at standard conditions. The subscript (a) refers to actual conditions; the subscript (s) refers to standard conditions. Unfortunately, not all STP conditions are universal. Many users consider one atmosphere and 70° F as STP. Some industries use one atmosphere and 60° F as standard; others use one atmosphere and 32° F as standard. The metric equivalent is Normal conditions which are based on a pressure of one bar (14.5 psia) and 0° C. The important issue is that Standard Conditions are not Standard and a mass flow meter needs to be able to permit the user to select the desired STP condition. An error of approximately 8% will occur if there is a difference in STP conditions between 70° F and 32° F. Once a set of standard conditions is identified, the density of that gas at these conditions is known. Therefore, it is a simple matter to convert from SCFM to mass in pounds per hour: In this formula, the density in pounds per cubic foot is the density at the specified STP conditions. via Direct Measurement of Mass Flow Rate in Industrial Process Operations.

Reliable Foam Measurement Within Liquid Process Media is a Challenging Application

Magnetrol Jul 23, 2014 No Comments
Magnetrol_Logo_uid872012732441 Posted on Tue, Jul 01, 2014 @ 08:27 AM   Foam Measurement and Liquid Level Instrumentation: A Magnetrol Applications Study Process media susceptible to foaming are particularly challenging to accurate liquid level measurement. Foam’s lower density, as compared to a foam-free liquid, will absorb or deflect a substantial portion of the return signal, diminishing the all-important reflectivity required by non-contact measurement technologies. Depending on the degree of foaming, a foamed medium can also turn aggressively sticky and completely lose all flowability. A Magnetrol® prepared foods customer in Europe is well aware of the high demands that foam measurement places on liquid level instrumentation technology. The company’s chocolate mousse product is intentionally infused with air to give it the light and airy texture that is the signature of this dessert. The very name “mousse” is the French word for “foam.” The mousse filling system, with its multiple storage containers, measures chocolate mousse levels at various stages of foaming.  Each of these stages varies greatly as the system controls the dosing, foaming and other processes. A total of five measurements are required to produce the liquid, with several additional steps to create the ready-made mousse. But a continuous, reliable and repeatable measurement for the application had evaded the food processor. Competitive solutions faltered, including guided wave and through-air radar devices, as strong buildup took down capacitance and the lack of fluidity eliminated float technology. It always came down to signal loss, measurement errors and massive production waste, either by over- or underfilling the reservoirs. Finally, the MAGNETROL Eclipse® guided wave radar transmitter with a hygienic single rod probe gave the customer a solution to this tricky measurement application. With just a single sensitivity adjustment to the transmitter, the entire measuring range produced results that eliminated any need for high- and low-level switches. Even the built-in tank agitator did not challenge the performance of the ECLIPSE device. After the customer screened the measuring capability of the ECLIPSE model within an experimental facility, the plant manager gave the thumbs-up to install the transmitter in all five tanks. At another prepared foods facility in Europe, it was the level (with foam) measurement of a yogurt filling system that was causing headaches. This company requires a continuous, reliable and repeatable level measurement in the filling system for its low-fat yogurt. Feeding the filling machine on the production line are three different tanks, each one requiring its own level sensor. Derived from the Turkish word for “curdled,” yogurt is a thickened dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. Making the yogurt product creates significant foaming in the feed tanks, an issue that a level instrumentation competitor said could be solved using capacitance and guided wave radar devices in tandem. But when these devices were applied, measurements failed by indicating either zero level or 100% level. When Magnetrol proposed an ECLIPSE guided wave radar transmitter, a comparison test was requested. The two feed tanks were equipped with ECLIPSE units and the third tank was equipped with a competitor’s capacitance sensor. Because ECLIPSE was manufactured with the competitor’s standard process connection—a SMS nut—it was very easy to change between the two different level devices. During the six-hour test, the two installed ECLIPSE units worked without a single failure. During the clean-in-place cycle and the product changeover, the ECLIPSE models again performed flawlessly. The customer replaced the competitor’s capacitance sensor on the third tank with one more ECLIPSE transmitter. Today, all the yogurt tanks at the facility are functioning at optimal levels, using ECLIPSE guided wave radar technology. HeatRate_ECLIPSE_CTA-706-big_(4) via Reliable Foam Measurement Within Liquid Process Media is a Challenging Application.

Magnetrol® Steps Up for Autism

Magnetrol Jul 23, 2014 No Comments
Magnetrol® Steps Up for Autism Posted on Tue, Jul 08, 2014 @ 08:35 AM   On June 22, Magnetrol® associates from global headquarters in Aurora, Illinois, “stepped up” to do their part to increase awareness of autism, by participating in the 2014 Step Up For Autism Walk. Benefiting Little Friends and the Little Friends Center for Autism in neighboring Naperville, 40 MAGNETROL participants helped raise funds to support community members affected by the developmental disability. Below: The MAGNETROL Team Steps Up To Fight Autism.   Magnetrol_Steps_Up_To_Fight_Autism-resized-600   Below: MAGNETROL Team Members Reach The Finish Line. via Magnetrol® Steps Up for Autism.

It’s Official! Magnetrol® Marks New Headquarters Opening

Magnetrol Jul 23, 2014 No Comments
Ribbon_Cuttingv2-resized-600It’s Official! Magnetrol® Marks New Headquarters OpeningPosted on Tue, Jul 22, 2014 @ 08:45 AM   Email Article    inShare45  Despite the gray weather, the outlook for Magnetrol® International was 100% sunny during its official ribbon-cutting ceremony and open house, celebrating the grand opening of the company’s new corporate headquarters and manufacturing facilities in Aurora, Illinois, USA.On July 12, MAGNETROL employees, families, friends and special guests gathered for the ribbon-cutting ceremony and open house. In all, 661 were on hand to watch the ribbon cutting, including Illinois Congressman Bill Foster, Illinois State Senator Linda Holmes and Aurora’s Assistant Chief of Staff Chuck Nelson. Fourteen MAGNETROL officers and directors cut the ribbon, which was held by two veteran MAGNETROL associates, Crys Fiedler 39 years and Pepe Silva 37 years.Asked about their role in the ribbon-cutting, Mr. Silva said, "I was very proud to be chosen to participate in the ceremony," with Ms. Fiedler adding, "It was an honor to be asked." MAGNETROL President and CEO Jeff Swallow emphasized that creating the new corporate headquarters demonstrated a significant team effort. “Who would have thought that this company, which was started 83 years ago in a garage in St. Louis, Missouri, would be celebrating another start in a state-of-the-art, 231,000 square-foot, new corporate headquarters?” said Mr. Swallow. “Certainly not me. But here we are.”“That’s what makes this company great," added Vice President and Chief Operating Officer John Heiser. "It’s the perseverance, it’s the passion and it’s the drive that each of our associates, each one of our members of this company, each one of our partners has, that makes us what we are today.” via It’s Official! Magnetrol® Marks New Headquarters Opening.

Level Control Applications for Geothermal Power

Magnetrol Jul 07, 2014 No Comments

geothermal power example

BROCHURE :instrumentation for renewable energy

Geothermal reservoirs located deep underground provide powerful sources of heat energy. Drilling a geothermal well to a reservoir brings hot water and steam to the surface, where it is valued as a source of renewable energy. The three principal uses of geothermal power are electricity generation, geothermal heating and geothermal heat pumps. In these systems, there is a wide range of applications that require reliable level measurement and control for efficiency and safety.


Geothermal electricity can be produced at dry steam plants, flash steam plants and binary cycle plants. Dry steam plants use steam piped directly from a geothermal reservoir. Flash steam plants take high-pressure hot water and convert it to steam. As the water rises, the pressure is reduced and the water flashes to steam. Binary cycle plants take heat from the geothermal water and transfer it to an organic fluid (a butane or pentane hydrocarbon) with a low boiling point in a high-pressure heat exchanger known as a vaporizer. The heat transfer causes the second (or “binary”) liquid to turn to steam.

Geothermal heating is the direct use of geothermal heat for space and process heating applications. Industrial applications include zinc and gold mining, desalination, milk pasteurization and food dehydration.

Geothermal heat pumps use the Earth's constant temperatures to heat and cool buildings by transferring and removing heat into buildings according to seasonal needs.

Geothermal Vessels 2


1. STEAM/BRINE SEPARATOR: To achieve better conditions for turbine operation, a reservoir’s steam and brine (salt water) is separated into streams where the brine water and particulate matter settle out and the steam vapors rise. The steam collects at the top of the separator where it is removed. Liquid level control modulates the amount of water that is drawn off. Recommended Continuous Level Technologies: Guided Wave Radar, Displacer Controller Recommended Point Level Technologies: External Cage Float, Thermal Dispersion

2. DEGASSER TANK: Geothermal hot water is often routed through a degasser – a large insulated tank equipped to remove organic gases and provide displacement with air or nitrogen. Degassing operations provide treatment by way of carbon adsorption, thermal/catalytic oxidization, combustion, vacuum induction or by a series of condensers. Recommended Continuous Level Technologies: Guided Wave Radar, Displacer Controller Recommended Point Level Technologies: External Cage Float, Thermal Dispersion

3. WATER STORAGE TANK: Water tanks include those for heated water, cooling water, and wastewater. Direct heat use applications require heated water storage. Spent geothermal fluids with high concentrations of chemicals are stored prior to treatment and reinjection into the reservoir. Hot water can be cooled in special storage tanks to avoid modifying the ecosystem of natural bodies of water prior to reinjection. Recommended Continuous Level Technologies: Guided Wave Radar, Displacer Controller, Pulse Burst Radar (Through Air), Ultrasonic Recommended Point Level Technologies: Float Actuated, Ultrasonic

4. FLASH TANK: Hot water from the geothermal well enters a flash tank where the reduced pressure causes the water to boil rapidly, or "flash" into vapor. Water that remains liquid in the tank is returned to the groundwater pump to be forced down into the reservoir again. The vapor from the flash tank drives the steam turbine. Recommended Continuous Level Technologies: Guided Wave Radar Recommended Point Level Technologies: Displacer Switch, Thermal Dispersion

VAPORIZER: In these special heat exchangers, the geothermal fluid heats and vaporizes a secondary “binary” fluid, which is typically an organic liquid with a low boiling point. The organic vapor drives the turbine. The level of water in the tank must be monitored. Recommended Continuous Level Technologies: Guided Wave Radar, Displacer Controller Recommended Point Level Technologies: External Cage Float, Ultrasonic